When you have a question about your business—which new product to offer, what new features and services to add, where to open your next location—there's only one obvious way to find out: a survey. It's like magic: you put together questions, ask your followers and fans, and voilà, you know what to do next.
Surveys seem so simple, but they rarely are in real life. Slightly vary the types of questions and response options in your survey, and you can seriously impact the quality and value of your survey’s results.
Bad results can lead to bad decisions—the very thing you set out to avoid by making a survey in the first place. Ask the wrong questions, or ask them in the wrong way, and you'll end up with products and services no one wants.
That's why thoughtful survey design is so important. It'll help you get better, trustworthy results. Here are some tips on how to build an effective survey, starting with the one thing that's most important in a survey: questions.
Surveys: Where to Begin
It's easy to begin the survey writing process by brainstorming a list of questions to ask. Your head's full of questions you're dying to ask your customers, and it'd be so easy to type them out in a survey app and call it a day.
But that's far from the best way to start. Instead, you should begin your survey building process by brainstorming the answers you want. You want actionable feedback, and you'll be most likely to get that by thinking through the exact answer you want. This could be a simple answer (perhaps "Our customers want us to offer THIS flavor of soda") or a more complicated hypothesis you want to prove (such as "Concern about social status is/is not correlated with social media usage.").
So sit down, and think through what you want to learn from your survey. Write down each answer you want, with a blank in the spot of the thing you want to learn—the flavor of soda to offer, the feature people are missing, or the correctness of a statement. Once you've completed this exercise, use the list to build questions for your survey.
Starting with a list of answers and turning them into survey questions will ensure you include all of the questions you need, and word them in a way that will get effective answers. It will also prevent you from inflating your survey with questions that don’t matter.
Just like you start a building project with blueprints—and don't just begin pouring concrete whenever you decide you want a new building—your survey should start with the answers you need, and then you'll be better prepared to make the questions that will provide those questions.
Getting Answers: Survey Question Types
As you're turning your answers into questions, you'll need to think about what type of questions you need to ask. Surveys aren't just about yes and no questions—you'll find dozens of question types in most survey apps. It can quickly get confusing which type of question you should use for each answer you need.
The type of question you use will affect the answers you get and the kinds of analysis you can do. Here are the most common types of questions you can use in a survey, along with examples of the type of data you'll collect with each.
If you’re looking for a simple count, like "35% of people said ABC" or "20% of men and 24% of women…" then there's a variety of question types you can use: Yes/No, checkbox, or multiple choice question type. These types of questions are also called "nominal" questions.
Analysis of categorical-level questions can include counts and percentages—"22 respondents" or "18% of customers", for example—and they work great for bar graphs and pie charts. You cannot take averages or test correlations with nominal-level data.
The simplest survey question—and the only question you'll usually use in a poll—is a Yes/No question. You'll ask a question, then have two options: Yes and No. Your survey app likely offers a Yes/No question; otherwise, use the multiple choice question and add Yes and No answers yourself.
Example: Are you a vegetarian? Yes/No
Need more nuance than a Yes/No answer gives? Multiple choice is what you need. You can add as many answers as you want, and your respondents can pick only one answer to the question.
Example: What's your favorite food? Pizza/Pasta/Salad/Steak/Soup/Other
Have a multiple choice-type question where you think some people will want to choose more than one option? Checkbox questions add that flexibility. Add as many answers as you want, and respondents can pick as many answers to the question as you want.
Example: Which types of meat do you like? Beef/Pork/Chicken/Fish/Duck/Other
When question responses have a clear order (like "Income of $0-$25K, $26K-40K, $40K+"), we call them "ordinal" questions. You could collect ordinal data with Multiple Choice questions, or you could use drop-down or ranking questions.
Analysis for ordinal questions is similar to analysis for nominal questions: you can get counts and percentages. You cannot find averages or test correlations with ordinal-level data.
Drop-down questions work much like a multiple choice question—you'll have several different possible answers, and respondents can only choose one option. But you'll need to list the answers in order—perhaps largest to smallest—for ordinal data. You could also use this question to gather demographic data like their country or state of residence.
Example: What's your household income? $0-10k/$10-35k/$35-60k/$60k+
A more unique survey question type that you won't find in every survey app, ranking questions let you list a number of answers and respondents can rearrange them all into the order they want. That way, they can give feedback on every answer you offer. It's a great way to see which items people like most and least at the same time.
Example: What's your favorite beverages? Rank in order of preference. Milk/Water/Juice/Coffee/Soda/Wine/Beer
For the most precise data and thorough analysis, use the interval or ratio question type. These questions allow you to conduct advanced analysis, like finding averages, testing correlations, and running regression models. You'll use ranking scale, matrix, or text fields in your survey app to ask these type of questions.
Interval questions are questions that are often asked on a scale of 1-5 or 1-7, like from "Strongly Disagree" to "Strongly Agree" or from "Never" to "Always." Ratio questions have a true zero and often ask people to input an actual number into the survey field (like How Many Cups of Coffee Do You Drink Per Day? ____") You don’t really have to worry about the differences between the two types.
The default choice for interval questions, ranking scale questions look like a multiple choice question with the answers in a horizontal line instead of a list. There will likely be 3 to 10 answers, either with a number scale, a like/love scale, a never/always scale, or any other ratio interval. It's a great way to find a more precise measure of people's thoughts than a Yes/No question could give.
Example: On a scale of 1-5, how would you rate our store cleanliness? 1/2/3/4/5
Have a lot of interval questions to ask? Use a matrix if your survey app includes it. You can list a number of questions in a list, and use the same scale for all of them. It simplifies gathering data about a lot of similar items at once.
Example: How much do you like the following: oranges, apples, grapes? Hate/Dislike/Ok/Like/Love
For ratio questions—or direct feedback, or personal data like names—you'll need the textbox question. There's usually a small and large textbox option, so choose the size that's appropriate for the data you're collecting. You'll add the question, and then there will be a blank where your respondent can enter their answer on their own.
Example: How many apps are installed on your phone? Enter a number: _
6 Best Practices for Writing Survey Questions
Now that you have a list of the answers you're looking for, it's time to start writing questions for your survey. You know you want to pick a new flavor of soda to offer, so you immediately start typing:
We've thought about offering Watermelon or Potato Chip flavored soda, but wanted to ask you first. So, which flavor of soda would you like to see us offer, and what size of bottles would you like to buy it in?
Nope. That's not going to work. Before you write pages full of detailed questions, you'll need to remember to follow these tips to build effective survey questions:
1. Use Simple, Direct Language
Avoid using big words, complicated words, and words that could have multiple meanings. Your question should be short, simple, and clear.
2. Be Specific
Some concepts may mean different things to different people. Try to be as specific as possible when you ask questions. For example, instead of asking "Do you exercise regularly?" you could ask "How many days per week, on average, do you exercise?" This gives you a more precise, objective answer.
3. Break Down Big Ideas into Multiple Questions
Another way to deal with broad concepts that mean different things to different people is by breaking them down into multiple, more tangible questions.
"Customer satisfaction" is a common topic that businesses want to explore, and it's a big question packed with smaller ideas. Instead of asking "How Satisfied Are You with This Product?", you could instead ask people to give their opinion on three separate statements (asking them to weigh in on a scale of "Strongly Disagree" to "Strongly Agree"):
I enjoy using this product. This product meets my needs. I would purchase from this company again.
The individual statements provide insight into different pieces of your business, and the average of the scores give you a general measure of satisfaction that you can track over time and try to improve. Together, the three questions give you a precise, actionable answer to the question of customer satisfaction.
For another simple way to survey customer satisfaction, check out our guide to the Net Promoter Score.
Marketing scholars have developed many series of questions (called "scales") that together measure broad concepts (known as "constructs" in the research field) like customer satisfaction. One of the best collections of these marketing scales is The Marketing Scales Handbook by Dr. Gordon C. Bruner, a must have for any serious market researcher with questions for constructs like customer satisfaction, brand affinity, and more. Or, for a simpler option, you'll find pre-made constructs in many survey apps such as Survey Monkey's Question Bank. Rather than try to come up with your own questions, you can use these questions that have already been determined to be statistically valid.
4. Avoid Leading Questions
Sometimes, researchers’ opinions can seep into survey questions, subtly encouraging respondents to answer in a certain way and compromising survey results.
For example, asking "Do you think the school should cut the gym budget to pay crossing guards?" would likely prompt a different answer than asking, "Should the school employ crossing guards to protect our children?" even though both questions are related to the same topic.
To avoid leading questions, ask a friend or colleague to review your survey for any questions that seem like they have a right or wrong answer. If your friend can guess what kind of answer you’re looking for, consider rewriting the question. The answer may even be in splitting the question into multiple questions—a great option for the example question.
5. Ask One Thing per Question
Each of your survey questions should ask one thing, and one thing only. It seems simple enough, but many survey writers fall into the "double-barreled" question trap. For example, "Do you eat fruits & veggies on a daily basis?" can actually be a hard question to answer. What if somebody eats just fruits or just veggies? There’s not a clear way for them to answer this question. A better option is to split the question into two separate ones.
You can check your survey for double-barreled questions by looking for words like "and" or "or" in your questions.
6. Use More Interval Questions
One simple way to take your survey from good to great is by changing your Yes/No and multiple choice questions to interval questions. Make a statement, and ask people to answer it on a 1-5 or 1-7 scale, like "Strongly Disagree, Disagree, Neither Agree nor Disagree, Agree, or Strongly Agree." You’ll instantly upgrade the level of analysis you can perform on your results.
Researchers use scales of 1-5 or 1-7 because they do a good job capturing variation in answers, without causing information overload for the respondent. It may seem like using a scale of 1-100 would help you capture really detailed answers, but it actually causes respondents to answer 0, 50, or 100—their answers tend to migrate around extremes or the center. Using a scale of 1-5 or 1-7 will help you get more accurate, nuanced answers from respondents.
Then, instead of looking at each question individually, like most people do, you can add on another layer of analysis by looking at how questions relate to one another. When you ask interval questions, you open the door to check correlations, which allow you to say "People who are more likely to ABC are less likely to think DEF." If you’re a statistics whiz, you can run a linear regression and say "Factors G, H, and I have the biggest impact on J." More simply, you can take averages and say things like "Junior employees, on average, exercise more often than senior employees."
Survey Pitfalls to Avoid
Once you’ve written your survey questions and responses, it's time to make sure you haven’t fallen victim to the following pitfalls.
Survey response bias is a sad but important reality to consider when writing surveys. Asking for information like gender, race, or income at the beginning of a survey can influence how people respond to the rest of the survey. (This is also called stereotype threat.) For example, studies have shown that when girls identify their gender before a math test, they perform worse on the test than girls who aren’t asked to identify their gender.
Most survey writers prevent bias and stereotype threat by asking sensitive questions—including those about gender, race, and income—at the end of surveys.
Bias can happen on a smaller scale, too. Asking someone "How important do you think content marketing is?" followed by "How much do you plan to invest in content marketing next year?" could lead to bias. If someone says they believe content marketing is very important, they may inflate the dollar amount they plan to spend in the next question. Randomizing question order is a simple way to prevent this type of bias.
Bias can also happen when you interpret the survey. Without even knowing it, you might treat one person's opinion differently simply because of their demographic answers. In some cases, you might not want to gather any demographic data at all to create a totally anonymous survey, something common in academic research.
The wording used in survey instructions about why a survey is being conducted can impact the way respondents answer questions. For example, framing a customer service follow-up survey as an evaluation of a team member may prompt respondents to be more positive than if you framed the survey as a tool to improve your processes.
Asking "Did John solve your problem well?" may encourage more positive answers since respondents are being asked about a specific, real person. But you want high quality answers, so asking "Did we solve your problem today?" is a more neutral way to phrase the same question.
People have a tendency to want to help. If you tell them that the survey has a goal, they may answer questions in a way that helps you achieve that goal, instead of answering the questions totally honestly. To prevent this, try to be neutral when you describe the survey and give instructions.
When questions are asked on a scale (like from "Strongly Disagree" to "Strongly Agree"), respondents can get frustrated if there’s not a Neutral option. Neutral options are usually handled two ways: giving respondents a "Neither Agree nor Disagree" option in the middle of the scale and giving them a "N/A" option at the end of it, in case the question does not apply.
Respondents can also get frustrated with your survey when it forces them to answer questions in ways that aren’t true. For example, if you ask "What’s your favorite food?" and only provide pizza, cheeseburgers, and burritos as options, people who love chicken nuggets don’t have a clear answer choice. An easy way to get around this is to provide an "Other" option and make the question not required.
An even better solution is to make sure you’re providing robust answer choices by pre-testing your survey and allowing respondents to brainstorm answer choices you may have missed. (You could also rewrite the question to not require as precise of an answer.)
Tips on Survey Format
Keep your survey as short as you can by limiting the number of questions you ask. Long surveys can lead to "survey fatigue." When survey fatigue hits, respondents either quit the survey or they stop paying attention and randomly check boxes until it’s complete. Either way, your data gets compromised.
Putting together your ideal "list of answers" before you write your survey will help you make sure to only include the questions that need to be asked. Compare the questions you’ve written to that list of answers. If there are any unnecessary or extra questions, remove them from the survey.
Here are a few more tips for formatting your survey to avoid survey fatigue and get meaningful results:
Break the Survey into Multiple Pages
If your survey does get long, consider breaking it into multiple pages. Respondents will be less overwhelmed when they look at it. Be careful, though, because having too many pages can also cause survey fatigue. You’ll have to strike a balance between page length and number of pages.
Show a Progress Bar
One of the easiest ways to keep people motivated as they move through your survey is to show a progress bar and give a time estimate. Enabling progress bars is pretty easy in most survey apps.
Make Sure Your Survey Works on Multiple Devices
If respondents will be using a variety of devices to take your survey, be sure to choose an app that’s responsive or that has desktop and mobile versions. When you’re thinking about what devices your respondents may be using, think about when and where they’ll be taking the survey (from work, from home, etc.).
Most survey apps today look great on mobile, but be sure to preview your survey on your phone and computer, at least, to make sure it'll look good for all of your users.
A Final Tip Before You Begin
You've created questions to find the answers you need, picked the perfect question type, and learned the things to avoid and the best ways to format your survey. Now, you're ready to fire up your survey app—or find a new survey builder if you don't have one already—and start making your survey a reality.
But don't share your survey with the world. Not just yet. Instead, it’s time to pre-test it. Pre-testing will help identify unclear questions, badly-worded responses, and more before you send your survey out to your respondents, and will give you a chance to improve your survey and its chances of generating actionable feedback.
To pre-test, send your completed survey to a few different people and ask them to tell you about any questions that seemed unclear or any problems they found. If you can, sit down with at least one or two people while they take the survey and listen to their reactions and feedback as they go. You’ll often hear things like "I’m not sure how to answer this" or "Wow, this is really long," which are clues that you have some revisions to do.
After it’s been pre-tested, take the time to review the results of your survey from your testers. This data isn't meaningful for your survey, but it can be helpful to make sure everything's working correctly. Make sure nothing has gone wonky with measurement and that you’re getting the types of data you expected.
No matter how much thought and hard work you put into creating your survey, it’s going to have flaws—and that’s okay. No survey is perfect, but investing time and thought into planning and writing will bring you much closer to getting the answers you need. And that's the ultimate goal—the survey's only a tool to get you there.
Related: Check out our guide to collecting customer feedback for more great ideas on getting ideas from your audience.
Image Credits: "Why?" photo by Eric via Flickr